The amniotic fluid is a source of cellular material which is amenable to reprogramming into endothelial cells. These reprogrammed ECs (rAC-VECs) form a durable platform which are near indistinguishable from bona fide endothelial cells.

Cell. 2012 Oct 26;151(3):559-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.032. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Ginsberg M1, James D, Ding BS, Nolan D, Geng F, Butler JM, Schachterle W, Pulijaal VR, Mathew S, Chasen ST, Xiang J, Rosenwaks Z, Shido K, Elemento O, Rabbany SY, Rafii S.

1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ansary Stem Cell Institute, Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 10065, USA.